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The modern critical or scientific study of Mind was inaugurated by the school of psychologists which dates from Bacon and Descartes, and has its greatest names in Locke, Berkeley, Hume and Kant. Its method was truly scientific in that it broke away from the old scholastic speculation, and relied on a critical study of mental phenomena. Hence the reproach which is sometimes brought against it, that it was metaphysical, is unfounded; and can only be raised by those who are dissatisfied with the study of consciousness as equivalent with the study of mind. The method of Locke, Berkeley and Hume was by introspection; they ignored the anatomy and physiology of the brain, of which indeed they knew little, although Locke had studied medicine and was in full accord with its spirit and aims. The problems they set before them were the nature of knowledge, sensations, ideas and mental processes in
AN ESSAY ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF MIND.. Arch NeurPsych. 1922;7(6):797-798. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1922.02190120118010