Encephalitis periaxialis diffusa was described by Schilder1 in 1912. Quite independently, Marie and Foix2 published an account of a similar case in 1914. Since then clinicopathologic studies of approximately forty additional cases have been reported. In spite of the growing literature concerning this condition, most of the cases have not been recognized clinically. This seems justifiable in the more acute, fulminating cases, and in those in which unilateral focal signs predominate, with or without evidence of increased intracranial tension. If opportunity is afforded for observation and study of the more chronic types of cases presenting general and bilateral signs of loss of cerebral functions, a correct diagnosis should generally be made.
Within a comparatively short time two cases presenting widely divergent clinical pictures have been studied at the Mayo Clinic. To point out some of the diagnostic difficulties which may be encountered and to emphasize the necessity of
SHELDEN WD, DOYLE JB, KERNOHAN JW. ENCEPHALITIS PERIAXIALIS DIFFUSA. Arch NeurPsych. 1929;21(6):1270–1298. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1929.02210240045003