This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables.
When Freud, in 1924, evolved his later formulation of the categories of the mind, the Id, the Ego and the Super-Ego, he gave to psychoanalytic theory a new impetus for discussion and speculation. Freud himself has referred to these formulations as mythical conceptions. Nevertheless, they have been fully and rather avidly adopted by practically all the adherents of his school, and are today forming the basis for a revision of old and the establishment of new valuations of mental dynamics and economics. To be sure the fundamentals of therapeutic psychoanalytic practice and aims have not been essentially altered by the new concepts of the Super-Ego and Id, nor even by the somewhat more radical postulates of a life and a death instinct. They have, however, tended to make more clear in the mind of the analyst the general psychologic interaction of antagonistic instinctive urges and repressing forces. Alexander refers to
Psychoanalysis of Total Personality.. Arch NeurPsych. 1931;25(2):447-448. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1931.02230020235017