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August 1935

Abstracts from Current Literature

Arch NeurPsych. 1935;34(2):409-431. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1935.02250200169015

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The Instinctive Emotional Life of Birds. Herbert Friedmann, Psychoanalyt. Rev. 21:381 (Oct.) 1934.

This scholarly article offers an analysis of the manifestations of instincts and emotions of birds and makes an attempt to correlate this material with corresponding material in human beings. In substance, Friedmann states that the emotional life of birds is on an instinctive level, on the nonconscious plane, as far as its driving force is concerned. Compared with those of human beings, the emotions are poorly developed and relatively limited in their modes of expression.

The emotions are of two main kinds: (a) the permanent or self-preservative and (b) the cyclic or race-preservative. Fear, greed and sociability (gregariousness) are the permanent emotions; "love" and its subdivisions and ramifications are cyclic. The type of reaction is constant for each species. Fear is the most prominent of the permanent emotions. Birds do not have the ability to think