Cerebral arteriography has not been widely employed in this country, and its value as an important adjunct to neurologic diagnosis has not been generally appreciated. The technic for the visualization of the vascular supply of the brain was introduced by Egas Moniz1 in 1927. After experimenting with several radiopaque substances, Moniz finally advocated the injection of a colloidal preparation of thorium dioxide (thorotrast). This method has been used extensively by its originator and has also found favor in several European clinics. The objections to cerebral arteriography and its relative neglect by American neurosurgeons are due to the toxicity and potential hazards inherent in the use of thorium compounds. Abundant evidence is available that thorium compounds are radioactive.2 Martland3 stated, "The routine use of thorium dioxide sol is criminal."
These substances may be injected into the vascular system or the body cavities with but slight immediate reaction. However,
GROSS SW. CEREBRAL ARTERIOGRAPHYITS PLACE IN NEUROLOGIC DIAGNOSIS. Arch NeurPsych. 1941;46(4):704-714. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1941.02280220137010