THE PSYCHOSES attributed to the use of morphine may be classified as follows: (1) chronic psychoses due to habitual use; (2) psychoses due to withdrawal, and (3) psychoses due to idiosyncrasy.
At the United States Public Health Service Hospital, Lexington, Ky., which is devoted primarily to the treatment of drug addiction and at which this study was made, there has been little experience with the last type (psychoses due to idiosyncrasy), since the patients are addicts and therefore habitually use large doses of morphine. However, it has been stated that this type of psychosis does occur1 but is rare and occurs more frequently in women. It is characterized by excitement or delirium. Psychoses due to withdrawal constitute a separate problem.
This study is concerned with an evaluation of the first type, chronic psychoses due to habitual use of morphine. "Psychoses due to opium or its derivatives" is listed in
PFEFFER AZ, RUBLE DC. CHRONIC PSYCHOSES AND ADDICTION TO MORPHINE. Arch NeurPsych. 1946;56(6):665-672. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1946.02300230059006