SINCE the publication by Freeman and Watts of "Psychosurgery,"1 which is the first extensive review of the subject of frontal lobotomy, three additional reviews have appeared.2 The main questions for discussion have been (1) the therapeutic value of the procedure, (2) the nature of the psychologic changes produced and (3) the amount of intellectual deficit shown.
Recently, Rylander3 and Malmo,4 working independently, demonstrated a reduction in general intelligence following frontal lobotomy, and Malmo concluded that the present balance of evidence favors interpretation of the observed deficit in terms of a reduction in the patient's ability to maintain a set in the face of interference. A formulation of frontal lobe function was stated as follows:
... The frontal association areas are concerned with the ability to adopt a set toward a goal, or an attitude of expectancy, and with the ability to maintain such a set or attitude
MALMO RB, SHAGASS C. BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGIC CHANGES UNDER STRESS AFTER OPERATIONS ON THE FRONTAL LOBES. Arch NeurPsych. 1950;63(1):113–124. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1950.02310190119010