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The author attempts to demonstrate that the involuntary movements which characterize the so-called extrapyramidal diseases are not necessarily caused by lesions of the basal ganglia. In a majority of cases the lesions are multiple, and it is not clear which one should be considered as responsible for a given symptom. He reports on a group of 12 patients with involuntary movements and brain tumors (one tumor in the occipital lobe and the others in the frontotemporoparietal region, none being in the basal ganglia). Movements ceased after resection of the brain tumor, thus supporting the idea of a functional, rather than an anatomical, cause of these movements. In each of 30 patients with a variety of involuntary movements, he sectioned the corticospinal tract or the motor cortex. In eight of these patients the movements ceased and the patients were able to return to their previous occupations. He concludes that to obtain
McDowell F. Pathogenesis and Surgical Therapy of Involuntary Movements (in Polish). AMA Arch NeurPsych. 1958;80(1):62. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1958.02340070080011