Author Affiliations: Department of Medicine and Center for Cardiovascular Innovation, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.
Defined broadly, a biomarker is a physiological variable that can be measured objectively and reliably1 and connotes some biological characteristic about the patient in whom it is measured. As such, biomarkers either can be used as a surrogate for a hard end point, correlating with an important clinical outcome of interest, or can be used to provide prognostic information—predictive of future events and, at their best, a tool to influence treatment strategies. In this commentary, we argue that this latter use is the most appropriate application for biomarkers.
Prasad V, Bonow RO. The Cardiovascular Biomarker ConundrumChallenges and Solutions. JAMA. 2011;306(19):2151-2152. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1673