Gallbladder carriers include carriers of the typhoid group, cholera carriers and probably also bacillary dysentery carriers. I have called attention1 to the problem of the pathogenesis of gallbladder lesions in these diseases, and have emphasized the mechanism of descending infection of the bile from the liver. It was shown by means of the common duct fistula method in rabbits that more typhoid bacilli appear in the bile with larger intravenous doses; that more bacilli appear after mesenteric than after ear vein injections; that more bacilli appear in immunized animals than in normal animals, and that more actual gallbladder infections occur under these conditions, which favor the
presence of micro-organisms in the bile, than otherwise.
The mechanism of infection in the case of typhoid, cholera and dysentery organisms seems, therefore, to be different from that in case of the streptococci which, as has recently been shown by Rosenow,2 seem
NICHOLS HJ. ALKALINE TREATMENT OF EARLY GALLBLADDER CARRIERSWITH OBSERVATIONS ON THEIR DETECTION BY AID OF THE DUODENAL TUBE. JAMA. 1917;LXVIII(13):958–961. doi:10.1001/jama.1917.04270030290004