Based on the suggestion by Corning,1 in 1885, that the intervertebral injection of cocaine solution would produce anesthesia sufficient for operations on the urethra and perineum, and on the perfection of the method of lumbar spinal puncture by Quincke2 in 1891, the production of surgical anesthesia was established by the intrathecal injection of cocaine by Bier,3 in 1899, and by Tait and Caglieri4 in 1900. The development of stovaine by Fourneau,5 in 1904, and of procaine (novocain) by Einhorn,6 in 1905, not to mention the many other compounds used, and the clinical and technical methods developed by Barker,7 Babcock,8 Labat,9 Pitkin10 and others have served to establish spinal anesthesia firmly as an anesthetic agent in the armamentarium of the surgeon.
That the newer anesthetics and the methods of their administration and control have less disagreeable pharmacologic and physiologic manifestations than
DAVIS L, HAVEN H, GIVENS JH, EMMETT J. EFFECTS OF SPINAL ANESTHETICS ON THE SPINAL CORD AND ITS MEMBRANESAN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY. JAMA. 1931;97(24):1781–1785. doi:10.1001/jama.1931.02730240031007