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February 24, 1940

THE TREATMENT OF DEHYDRATION, ACIDOSIS AND ALKALOSIS

JAMA. 1940;114(8):655-660. doi:10.1001/jama.1940.62810080004009
Abstract

Under various circumstances a syndrome called dehydration develops. The patient shows diminished turgor of the skin, sunken eyes, poor circulation, oliguria and concentration of the blood with respect to red cells and serum proteins. While an inadequate intake of water will produce some of these symptoms, the fully developed picture occurs almost exclusively when, as a result of vomiting, diarrhea, sweating or abnormal diuresis, the body has lost extracellular electrolyte (salts) as well as water. Furthermore, this fully developed picture of dehydration can be produced when extracellular electrolyte is no longer available to the body as a whole because it has been fixed in the inflammatory exudate of a burn. In dehydration the evidences of loss of fluid volume are confined chiefly to extracellular fluids. The central feature is the deficiency of extracellular electrolyte, since dehydration can develop either with or without loss of water from the body as a

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