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May 4, 1964

An Introduction to Body Fluid Metabolism

Author Affiliations

Rochester, NY

JAMA. 1964;188(5):474. doi:10.1001/jama.1964.03060310074028

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Programmed instruction is spreading in American educational institutions. This book constitutes a serious attempt to introduce it into the science of physiology.

Programmed instruction furnishes material for study, hopefully cast in a form that challenges each student. There are stepwise questions. If the student answers a question correctly he is rewarded by praise and a pellet of further concept or information; if the answer is incorrect, the student's misguided notions are pointed out, and he is asked to retrace his steps. Logical reasoning is emphasized by example and incentive.

Obviously, the book is doing what an instructor would do personally, if he had time to challenge each student individually. The student is called upon to build a structure of understanding by facing a series of carefully selected decisions which require systematic thought. There are other goals to education besides enabling students to pass an examination. These aims must exist without

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