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This study is a clinical pathological correlation based on 887 resected pulmonary masses. Because of the nature of the study and the source of the material there is a certain amount of selection. The patients were all males, and they had all been healthy enough to have been inducted into the armed services. Only 16 of 887 had significant other pulmonary disease.
While the author draws few conclusions, the monograph itself asserts some very forceful points: second primary malignancies can and do occur and may present as pulmonary nodules; pulmonary granulomas can occur in patients with history of malignancy elsewhere; benign tumors of the lung can occur in patients who have had a previous malignancy; preoperative examination with bronchoscopy, cytologic study of the sputum, and scalene node biopsy offer a very low yield of positive diagnoses in pulmonary nodules; size cannot be used as a criterion for determining malignancy; tuberculosis
Davis MV. The Solitary Pulmonary Nodule. JAMA. 1964;190(4):403. doi:10.1001/jama.1964.03070170144038