Rhinoscleroma is an enigmatic chronic inflammatory disorder of the upper respiratory tract, characterized by remissions and eventually by extreme debility and death due to obstructive sequellae or infection. Many therapeutic measures have been used in its treatment, including antibiotics and x-radiation, with limited or doubtful success. Although prevalent in Central Europe, the Middle East, and South and Central America, rhinoscleroma has been relegated to an esoteric position by physicians in this country because of its domestic rarity. Until 1942 approximately 100 examples were recorded in the United States, and only rare sporadic reports have been noted subsequently.
Lack of awareness of rhinoscleroma has frequently resulted in mistaken or delayed diagnosis. Histopathologically, the presence of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia of mucosal epithelium has occasionally prompted an erroneous diagnosis of carcinoma, and the profusion of plasma cells within the lesion has resulted in confusion with syphilis and plasmacytoma, a more common lesion at this
RHINOSCLEROMA. JAMA. 1964;190(9):847. doi:10.1001/jama.1964.03070220053015