Individuals with type 2 diabetes often have imbalances in their gut bacteria, as well as low levels of certain bacteria and high levels of opportunistic pathogens, according to an international team's analysis of the DNA of gut bacteria from 345 individuals in China (Qin J et al. Nature. 2012;490:55-60).
Individuals with diabetes also have an enrichment of other microbial functions that confer sulfate reduction and oxidative stress resistance. An analysis of 23 additional individuals demonstrated that these gut microbial markers might be useful for classifying type 2 diabetes.
Hampton T. Gut Bacteria and Diabetes. JAMA. 2012;308(17):1729. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.28153