Treatment with a combination of protease inhibitors reduces the incidence of malaria in children infected with HIV, report researchers in Uganda and the United States (Achan J et al. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:2110-2118).
In the open-label randomized trial, the participants—170 children aged 5 months to 5 years in Uganda who were infected with HIV—received antimalarial drugs and either of 2 anti-HIV therapies: the protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir or non–nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Although neither regimen lowered the children's risk of developing malaria during the first 6 months of the study, risk of recurrence of malaria after successful treatment with the antimalarial drug artemether-lumefantrine was reduced by 41% in the group receiving protease inhibitors compared with those receiving NNRTIs. There was an increase in serious adverse events in the group receiving protease inhibitors.
Friedrich MJ. HIV Drugs and Malaria. JAMA. 2013;309(3):223. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.206200