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December 14, 2011

Unconscious Race and Social Class Bias in Medical Students—Reply

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Department of Surgery (Dr Haider) (, Center for Elimination of Cardiovascular Disparities (Dr Cooper), Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; and Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville (Dr Sriram).

JAMA. 2011;306(22):2454-2455. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1771

In Reply: Mr Yang and colleagues raise an important methodological question regarding carryover effects while administering the IAT. This issue has been investigated because the IAT is commonly administered along with measures of explicit preference. Does the sequence in which the IAT and explicit measures of self-report are presented make a difference? In 2004, Hofmann et al1 published a meta-analysis that did not find any substantial differences in the results when the IAT preceded measures of self-report or when it followed. Nosek et al2 experimentally manipulated the order of the IAT and self-report measurements in 3 similar studies using different versions of the IAT and self-report measures and failed to find any effect of sequence on the IAT results.