In the last decade, South Africa has substantially reduced the number of children younger than 5 years who die from all causes, an achievement attributed primarily to improvements in interventions to address the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS (Kerber KJ et al. AIDS. 2013;27:2637-2648).
The researchers analyzed various data sources to estimate mortality trends in infants and children younger than 5 years in South Africa between 1990 and 2011. Although estimates varied, all of the sources that the investigators analyzed showed similar trends that indicated a peak in mortality in this age group in 2005, after which South Africa’s average annual under-5-year mortality rate declined rapidly by 6% to 10% each year from 2006 to 2011.
Friedrich MJ. Reversing Mortality Trends in Young South African Children. JAMA. 2013;310(19):2030. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.282528