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Data sharing is becoming increasingly common, whether at the insistence of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) compelled by freedom-of-information requests, or because of congressional subpoena. The increasing ease with which data can be acquired by those who did not originally collect them has led to an emerging scientific form, the reanalysis, in which a new team uses previously collected data to answer a question previously addressed by the same data. Reanalysis is different from replication, in which new data are used to answer an old question, and from supplemental research, in which previously collected data are used to answer a new but related question.
Christakis DA, Zimmerman FJ. Rethinking Reanalysis. JAMA. 2013;310(23):2499-2500. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.281337