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Immune responses to influenza vaccines may be weaker among males than females because of the effects of testosterone, reports a team led by scientists at the Stanford University School of Medicine (Furman D et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. doi:10.1073/pnas.1321060111 [published online December 23, 2013]).
The researchers found that antibody responses to influenza vaccines and expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the sera were greater in women than in men. Also, certain genes that help control lipid production and are expressed in response to testosterone correlated with poor virus-neutralizing antibody activity in men.
Hampton T. Hormones May Affect Influenza Vaccine Response. JAMA. 2014;311(5):456. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.287