α1-Antitrypsin inhibits inflammation, restores blood glucose to normal levels, and induces immune tolerance to beta islet cells in a type 1 diabetes mouse model (Koulmanda M et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:16242-16247).
Inflammation has been shown to be linked to insulin resistance and to defective insulin signaling in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. To see if countering inflammation might have beneficial effects, the researchers gave the animals α1-antitrypsin, an anti-inflammatory protein produced by the body that can induce long-term tolerance to allogenic islet cell transplants.
Hildreth CJ. Inflammation and Diabetes. JAMA. 2008;300(21):2476. doi:10.1001/jama.2008.737