By the spring of 1865, 180 000 African Americans had joined the Union Army to fight in the Civil War. By the end of the war, 33 000 soldiers had died, the majority from illnesses and infections not related to combat. Intensely Human: The Health of the Black Soldier in the American Civil War, by Margaret Humphreys, chronicles the recruitment, health status, and health care of the African American soldier during the Civil War.
Smitherman LC. Intensely Human: The Health of the Black Soldier in the American Civil War. JAMA. 2009;301(5):552-553. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.14