Harriet S.MeyerMD, Contributing EditorJonathan D.EldredgeMLS, PhD, Journal Review EditorRobertHoganMD, adviser for new media
How does the mind work? The question has occurred to curious adolescents and philosophers back at least as far as the ancient Greeks and Chinese. It was a matter of speculation until the 19th century, when neurologists began to correlate particular behavior with specific brain areas. The case of Phineas Gage stimulated great interest in the problem. Gage survived a severe injury to the frontal lobes but underwent a remarkable transformation from God-fearing model citizen to profane ne'er-do-well. The case suggested that restraint and civility reside in the frontal lobes. The great European neurologists, especially Broca and Wernicke, went further: by correlating the behavior of stroke victims with brain lesions found at autopsy, they identified structures of the left hemisphere that subserve language.
NeurologyNorman Geschwind: Selected Publications on Language, Epilepsy, and Behavior. JAMA. 1998;279(22):1839. doi:10.1001/jama.279.22.1839-JBK0610-4-1