Researchers from Uganda and the United Kingdom have linked differing sets of risk factors with the various indicators of malnutrition in children.
Data collected from questionnaires completed by mothers of 261 infants and toddlers in central Uganda showed that risk factors associated with wasting and being underweight differed from those associated with stunting and low mid-upper arm circumference. Risks specifically associated with the latter two conditions included low energy intake from fat, lack of meat consumption, and the presence of eye disease.
Voelker R. Malnutrition Risks. JAMA. 1998;280(18):1559. doi:10.1001/jama.280.18.1559-JWM80008-5-1