During the Anglo-Dutch wars of 1652-1674 one of the greatest illustrators of marine battle scenes was the Dutch artist Willem van de Velde. His specialty was to sketch ships from life, working from a raft in calm waters or aboard a small vessel called a galliot in the thick of a battle. Then he would convert the sketches to paintings in a studio, where his easel was steady and the air was dry. His son, Willem van de Velde the Younger, learned to paint from his father and refined his skills under the instruction of Simon de Vlieger. The van de Veldes formed a partnership, with the father sketching the compositions and the son executing the finished work in oils.
Cole TB. The Cannon Shot. JAMA. 2009;302(1):11. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.951