Harriet S.MeyerMD, Contributing EditorJonathan D.EldredgeMLS, PhD, Journal Review EditorRobertHoganMD, adviser for new media
A Dictionary of the History of Medicine has nearly everything that you wanted to know, from "Aaron of Alexandria" to "zymase." Anton Sebastian, MD, of Scotland has a personal library of more than 3000 antiquarian books on medical science, the basis for most of the information contained in the dictionary that he has compiled.
An interesting feature with many of the terms is the etymological explanation. As an otolaryngologist, I had not previously wondered about the origin of the word "parotid." However, the logic is evident from Dr Sebastian's etymology: "[Greek: para, besides + ous, ear]." Other examples include: "vagina [Latin: vagina, a scabbard or sheath]," "cirrhosis [Greek: kirros, yellow or tawny colored," "mastoiditis [Greek: mastos, breast + oid, form + itis, inflammation]" and "fetish [Portuguese: feitico, charm or amulet]."
HistoryA Dictionary of the History of Medicine. JAMA. 2000;283(14):1888-1889. doi:10.1001/jama.283.14.1888-JBK0412-4-1