Author Affiliations: Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (Dr Fonarow); Duke Clinical Research Institute and Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (Dr Peterson).
Heart failure is one of the most deadly and costly conditions in the United States.1 Among Medicare beneficiaries, heart failure is the most frequent cause of hospitalization and death, with 1-year readmission and mortality rates of 65% and 35%, respectively.2 While a number of therapies and interventions have been demonstrated to improve heart failure outcomes,1 studies have consistently shown gaps, variations, and disparities in the application of these therapies in routine clinical practice.3
Fonarow GC, Peterson ED. Heart Failure Performance Measures and OutcomesReal or Illusory Gains. JAMA. 2009;302(7):792-794. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1180