Treating women with mild gestational diabetes may lower the risk of large infants, shoulder dystocia, cesarean delivery, or elevated maternal blood pressure, according to a study funded by Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
The randomized trial included 958 women who met criteria for mild gestational diabetes who were randomly assigned to a treatment group (dietary intervention, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and insulin when indicated), or to a control group (usual prenatal care) (Landon MB et al. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:1339-1348). There was no significant difference between the groups in the study's primary outcome measure, which was a composite of mortality or morbidities in the infant, including hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, or birth trauma. However treated mothers were less likely to develop pregnancy-induced hypertension or preeclampsia, to have a cesarean delivery or a delivery involving shoulder dystocia, or to deliver an unusually large infant.
Kuehn BM. Gestational Diabetes. JAMA. 2009;302(20):2194. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1702