Dachau: a small town in Bavarian Germany, whose image now resounds with the horrors of the Holocaust, once housed a thriving artists' colony. The creative community began in the early 1800s, peaked in popularity at the turn of the century, and ended with the Great War. Painters such as Adolf Hölzel, Arthur Langhammer, Fritz von Uhde, and Ludwig Dill (1848-1940) worked in the wooded setting and there founded the school of art known as Neu Dachau (New Dachau). Neu Dachau art appeared as an offshoot of the Munich Secession, one of several breakaway European art movements at the fin de siècle. The Berlin Secession and the Vienna Secession followed Munich's example; the artists involved rebelled against the tightly controlled, state-sponsored exhibits of academic and historical paintings, in order to show their modern works in an environment free of political or imperial influence. Dill, probably most famous for his landscape paintings of the Dachau moor, belonged to the first group of artists in the 1892 Munich Secession, along with Hölzel, Langhammer, von Uhde, Max Liebermann ( JAMA cover, August 8, 2007), and Lovis Corinth ( JAMA cover, April 14, 2010). From 1893 until 1900, Dill served as the Secession's second president; he later became its harshest critic.
Torpy JM. The Birch Grove (Birkenwald). JAMA. 2010;303(22):2224. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.624