This text begins with a succinct description of the physical principles of cardiac ultrasound used in the formation of echocardiographic images of the heart. The authors describe how Doppler techniques are used to quantify cardiovascular hemodynamics based on the relationship between velocity and pressure differences. This introduction is followed by acquisition of a series of carefully annotated high-resolution images that follow the traditional echocardiographic protocol. Echocardiographic imaging of complex congenital heart disease can be overwhelming if a system of serial image acquisition is not used. Thus, sequential chamber analysis is prescribed as the system of choice; once adopted, chamber analysis proceeds very quickly.
Sutton MSJ. Echocardiography in Pediatric and Adult Congenital Heart Disease. JAMA. 2010;304(16):1844-1845. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.1551