By analyzing blood cells from 5 patients with HIV, a multi-institution research team found that sites where viral DNA integrates into the host genome are not random and likely play an important role in the expansion and persistence of infected cells (Maldarelli F et al. Science. doi:10.1126/science.1254194 [published online June 26, 2014]). All of the patients were taking long-term antiretroviral drugs, which block the infection of additional cells but have no effect on cells that have already been infected.
Hampton T. HIV Integration Sites Linked to Viral Persistence. JAMA. 2014;312(5):477. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.9733