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Consensus Statement
May 12, 1999

Anthrax as a Biological WeaponMedical and Public Health Management

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: The Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies (Drs Inglesby, Henderson, Bartlett, O'Toole, Perl, and Russell), and the Schools of Medicine (Drs Inglesby, Bartlett, and Perl) and Public Health (Drs Henderson, O'Toole, and Russell), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md; Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, California Department of Health, Berkeley (Dr Ascher); US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, Md (Drs Eitzen, Friedlander, and Parker); Office of Emergency Management, New York, NY (Mr Hauer); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga (Dr McDade); Acute Disease Epidemiology, Minnesota Department of Health, Minneapolis (Dr Osterholm); and the Office of Emergency Preparedness, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Md (Dr Tonat).

JAMA. 1999;281(18):1735-1745. doi:10.1001/jama.281.18.1735
Objective

Objective To develop consensus-based recommendations for measures to be taken by medical and public health professionals following the use of anthrax as a biological weapon against a civilian population.

Participants The working group included 21 representatives from staff of major academic medical centers and research, government, military, public health, and emergency management institutions and agencies.

Evidence MEDLINE databases were searched from January 1966 to April 1998, using the Medical Subject Headings anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, biological weapon, biological terrorism, biological warfare, and biowarfare. Review of references identified by this search led to identification of relevant references published prior to 1966. In addition, participants identified other unpublished references and sources.

Consensus Process The first draft of the consensus statement was a synthesis of information obtained in the formal evidence-gathering process. Members of the working group provided formal written comments which were incorporated into the second draft of the statement. The working group reviewed the second draft on June 12, 1998. No significant disagreements existed and comments were incorporated into a third draft. The fourth and final statement incorporates all relevant evidence obtained by the literature search in conjunction with final consensus recommendations supported by all working group members.

Conclusions Specific consensus recommendations are made regarding the diagnosis of anthrax, indications for vaccination, therapy for those exposed, postexposure prophylaxis, decontamination of the environment, and additional research needs.

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