A single oral dose of the antiretroviral drug nevirapine given to both an HIV-infected woman and her newborn infant provides the most practical and cheapest way to prevent transmission of the infection from mother to child, according to a study sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).
Researchers at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda, and Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore gave one group of HIV-infected women a single dose of nevirapine during labor and another dose to their infants within 3 days of birth. A second group of HIV-infected women received a short course of zidovudine (AZT) every 3 hours from the onset of labor until delivery, and their infants were given the drug twice a day during the first week after birth.
Stephenson J. Perinatal HIV Prevention. JAMA. 1999;282(7):625. doi:10.1001/jama.282.7.625