Author Affiliations: Medizinische Universitäts-Poliklinik, Kantonsspital Basel, Basel, Switzerland (Dr Bucher); Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Drs Guyatt, Cook, and Holbrook); and Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton (Dr McAlister).
Users' Guides to the Medical Literature
Section Editor: Drummond Rennie, MD, Deputy Editor (West), JAMA.
You are a physician seeing a 62-year-old woman with postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Her bone mineral density, as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry,
is 2.5 SDs below the mean value in premenopausal women. Although she does
not have back pain, a spinal radiograph shows an old vertebral fracture. The
patient has not yet experienced problems as a result of her vertebral fracture,
but she is disturbed by the prospect that she may end up like her mother whose
osteoporotic fractures have resulted in severe, long-term back pain.
Bucher HC, Guyatt GH, Cook DJ, Holbrook A, McAlister FA, for the Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group . Users' Guides to the Medical LiteratureXIX. Applying Clinical Trial Results A. How to Use an Article Measuring the Effect of an Intervention on Surrogate End Points. JAMA. 1999;282(8):771-778. doi:10.1001/jama.282.8.771