Adopted by the 18th WMA General Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964; and amended by the 29th WMA General Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, October 1975; the 35th WMA General Assembly, Venice, Italy, October 1983; the 41st WMA General Assembly, Hong Kong, September 1989; the 48th WMA General Assembly, Somerset West, Republic of South Africa, October 1996; and the 52nd WMA General Assembly, Edinburgh, Scotland, October 2000.
1. The World Medical Association has developed
the Declaration of Helsinki as a statement of ethical principles to provide
guidance to physicians and other participants in medical research involving
human subjects. Medical research involving human subjects includes research
on identifiable human material or identifiable data.
2. It is the duty of the physician to promote
and safeguard the health of the people. The physician's knowledge and conscience
are dedicated to the fulfillment of this duty.
Not Available . World Medical Association Declaration of HelsinkiEthical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. JAMA. 2000;284(23):3043-3045. doi:10.1001/jama.284.23.3043