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Special Communication
December 20, 2000

World Medical Association Declaration of HelsinkiEthical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects

Author Affiliations

Adopted by the 18th WMA General Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964; and amended by the 29th WMA General Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, October 1975; the 35th WMA General Assembly, Venice, Italy, October 1983; the 41st WMA General Assembly, Hong Kong, September 1989; the 48th WMA General Assembly, Somerset West, Republic of South Africa, October 1996; and the 52nd WMA General Assembly, Edinburgh, Scotland, October 2000.

JAMA. 2000;284(23):3043-3045. doi:10.1001/jama.284.23.3043

1. The World Medical Association has developed the Declaration of Helsinki as a statement of ethical principles to provide guidance to physicians and other participants in medical research involving human subjects. Medical research involving human subjects includes research on identifiable human material or identifiable data.

2. It is the duty of the physician to promote and safeguard the health of the people. The physician's knowledge and conscience are dedicated to the fulfillment of this duty.

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