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The Cover
January 10, 2001

The Old Musician

Author Affiliations

The Cover Section Editor: M. Therese Southgate, MD, Senior Contributing Editor.

JAMA. 2001;285(2):137. doi:10.1001/jama.285.2.137

Appointed by Emperor Napoleon III as prefect of Paris in 1853, Georges Eugène Haussmann gave the city a new face. To the trees and fountains (some 2000 by 1848) and squares and boulevards left by earlier city planners, Baron Haussmann added more. He razed slums, modernized water distribution, built a better sewage system, improved railway stations, and provided easier access to crowd control in the event of celebrations, riots, or war. Édouard Manet (1832-1883), on the other hand (whose studio was in an area Haussmann razed), preserved the faces Paris forgot: the gypsies, strolling musicians, street urchins, circus performers, drunkards, rag pickers, beggars, and babies he saw on Haussmann's boulevards. If Haussmann built, Manet created.

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