The Cover Section Editor: M. Therese Southgate,
MD, Senior Contributing Editor.
Appointed by Emperor Napoleon III as prefect of Paris in 1853, Georges
Eugène Haussmann gave the city a new face. To the trees and fountains
(some 2000 by 1848) and squares and boulevards left by earlier city planners,
Baron Haussmann added more. He razed slums, modernized water distribution,
built a better sewage system, improved railway stations, and provided easier
access to crowd control in the event of celebrations, riots, or war. Édouard
Manet (1832-1883), on the other hand (whose studio was in an area Haussmann
razed), preserved the faces Paris forgot: the gypsies, strolling musicians,
street urchins, circus performers, drunkards, rag pickers, beggars, and babies
he saw on Haussmann's boulevards. If Haussmann built, Manet created.
Southgate MT. The Old Musician. JAMA. 2001;285(2):137. doi:10.1001/jama.285.2.137