Author Affiliations: Department of History, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles.
Pain is a complex clinical problem. Assessment depends on verbal report,
and the patient's physical perceptions may be modified by cognitive and affective
factors. The salience of pain as a problem in its own right has grown since
1945 and new therapeutic alternatives have developed from research and from
new theoretical perspectives. This short historical review of the highlights
of the history of pain management gives particular emphasis to the 20th century
and to chronic and cancer pain.
Meldrum ML. A Capsule History of Pain Management. JAMA. 2003;290(18):2470-2475. doi:10.1001/jama.290.18.2470