Studies that expose individuals to toxins may be justified if stringent
scientific and ethical standards are imposed by the Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA), according to a National Academies of Science committee.
Intentional dosing studies of pesticides, air pollutants, and other
toxicants should be conducted and used by the EPA for regulatory purposes
only if certain conditions are met, the committee said. Studies must be necessary
and address questions not answerable by animal studies, and the possible benefits
to society must outweigh any anticipated risks to participants. Dosing studies
for the sole purpose of improving the accuracy of EPA's reference doses for
humans will be justified only if there are no identifiable risks to participants
and informed consent and all other recognized ethical standards for protecting
study participants are observed.
Hampton T. Testing Toxins in Humans. JAMA. 2004;291(12):1434. doi:10.1001/jama.291.12.1434-b