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The Cover
May 18, 2005

Four Jockeys

Author Affiliations

The Cover Section Editor: M. Therese Southgate, MD, Senior Contributing Editor.

JAMA. 2005;293(19):2318. doi:10.1001/jama.293.19.2318

During the summer of 1889 all of Paris was abuzz. The eagerly awaited Exposition Universelle, or World's Fair, was opening the first week of May and would display French art, science, and technology to the world. Its centerpiece was the newly completed, 7000-ton, 984-foot-high filigree iron tower rising in the middle of Paris from a base of concrete. Three elevators would take the adventurous up its sloping sides where they might obtain a view of Paris never before seen by anyone except balloonists. The Fair and this architectural marvel by an engineer named Alexandre Gustave Eiffel would also, it was hoped, bring in much-needed revenues to help offset the debts of a just-ended engineering disaster that was headed by Vicomte de Lesseps, who had hoped to join the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans by building a ship passage across the Panama Isthmus. On the other hand, there were marvels of travel closer to home to celebrate. On June 1 the Orient Express, already in operation between Paris and Constantinople for a half-dozen years, left Gare de l'Est for its first through trip between the two cities. Heretofore the passengers had to detrain at the Bulgarian border and complete the trip by ferry, a second train, and a ship. The new schedule shaved some 13 hours from the old, with the Express completing its journey in 671/2 hours. Among the thousands of visitors making their first trips to Paris were, at different times, the 23-year-old Wassily Kandinsky and the 26-year-old Edvard Munch, each of whom would carry his own revolution into the next century. The pleasure of visitors to the city was indulged. On Montmartre, a brand new cabaret, the Moulin Rouge, opened and the word “cancan” became part of the international vernacular.

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