Author Affiliation: Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (firstname.lastname@example.org).
In Fundamentals of Surgical Simulation: Principles and Practices, Anthony Gallagher, an educational psychologist, and Gerry O’Sullivan, a master surgeon, make the case that the constraints with which surgical training programs currently grapple lead to the inevitable conclusion that a new era of surgical training has arrived. Nothing typifies this new world more than the emergence of simulators and simulation applications, but it is as yet unclear whether surgical simulation will be a useful adjunct or a fundamental core of surgical education for the next century. For true believers like Gallagher and O’Sullivan, there is no doubt as to the role simulation will play.
Andersen DK. Fundamentals of Surgical Simulation: Principles and Practices. JAMA. 2012;307(9):974-975. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.246