Book and Media Reviews Section Editor: John L. Zeller, MD, PhD, Fishbein Fellow.
Some would say that every surgical procedure is research. Every patient is unique, as is his or her anatomy, especially in the presence of surgical disease. With each operation, the surgeon hones his or her skills: she may apply an approach slightly different from the norm; use an instrument for a task other than that for which it was designed; try a device that is meant for another domain; or take a novel approach to an elective case today—an approach she invented just yesterday in a desperate situation, where it seemed to work.
Stillman RM. Innovation in Medical Technology: Ethical Issues and Challenges. JAMA. 2007;297(22):2529-2533. doi:10.1001/jama.297.22.2530