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In using a syringe or any other apparatus which has a pressure device to force fluid into the kidneys there is always danger of renal overdistention and colic. In a few instances large hydronephrotic kidneys have been ruptured by this overdistention by the pressure method.
Apparatus for the injection and lavage of the pelves of the kidneys and the ureters: a, control screw for raising or lowering single buret; b, Y-tube; c, tube for draining unused colloidal silver solution.
The frequency of overdistention and renal colic resulting from injecting the pelvis of the kidney and the ureters with shadowcasting fluids by means of a syringe suggested to me the idea of using an apparatus with only sufficient force of gravity to cause the flow to reach the kidneys. Inusing the pressure method it is difficult to control the amount of pressure used and the examiner cannot always stop the pressure
THOMAS GJ. AN APPARATUS FOR THE INJECTION AND LAVAGE OF THE PELVES OF THE KIDNEYS AND THE URETERS. JAMA. 1913;60(3):184. doi:10.1001/jama.1913.04340030014009