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Since von Jaksch first called attention to the association of splenomegaly with anemia in children, a number of similar cases have been studied under the name of von Jaksch's disease. But as most of the cases reported differ in their clinical features and pathologic findings, the existence of the condition as a distinct disease of the blood is still a matter of dispute. Pseudoleukemia infantum is now defined as a rare disease of childhood, characterized by a severe anemia, marked enlargement of the spleen, some enlargement of the liver, and a chronic course with one or more relapses. The anemia is the most constant feature of the disease. It presents the combined blood picture of pernicious anemia and leukocytosis or lymphocytosis. While splenic enlargement is said to be an important diagnostic finding, it cannot be so considered in this country, where chronic malarial spleens are common among the children. The
ROTH DA. REPORT OF A CASE OF PSEUDOLEUKEMIA INFANTUM (VON JAKSCH'S DISEASE). JAMA. 1918;70(25):1914-1915. doi:10.1001/jama.1918.02600250014005