Newborn screening is designed for presymptomatic identification of serious conditions for which there are effective treatments. Because newborn screening programs in the United States are operated by states, there has historically been considerable cross-state variability in screened conditions and thus a need for a mechanism to guide states.
The Discretionary Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children, which was appointed by the Secretary of the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), conducts a rigorous evidence-based review of nominated conditions with 4 primary considerations: (1) the condition represents a significant public health problem, (2) there is an accurate and low-cost screening test, (3) treatments exist with proven efficacy, and (4) states are capable of screening and follow-up.
Bailey DB, Gehtland L. Newborn ScreeningEvolving Challenges in an Era of Rapid Discovery. JAMA. 2015;313(15):1511-1512. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.17488