In Great Britain during the 20th century, undergraduate education was provided by medical schools, continuing professional development was the responsibility of universities linked to their nearest National Health Service (NHS) hospitals, and specialist training and accreditation was in the hands of the Royal Colleges. The latter had the authority to veto training posts in hospitals if they were considered inadequate and moderated every appointment committee for NHS consultant (ie, staff) posts.
Marcovitch H. Governance and Professionalism in MedicineA UK Perspective. JAMA. 2015;313(18):1823-1824. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.3187