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This monograph, from the Carnegie Nutrition Laboratory, Boston, is a report of an extensive series of measurements of the energy required by standing, walking on a level, and walking up grade at varying speeds. The energy requirements were calculated from the gaseous exchange, the subjects being fitted with a gas mask that permitted accurate determination of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxid output. The results are not new to science, but are probably the most accurate and extensive so far reported. Considerable skill is shown in devising experimental procedures that permit accurate energy measurements without placing the subject in too abnormal conditions. Dr. Smith finds that standing requires about 12 per cent, more calories than lying horizontal, while horizontal walking requires about 0.5 gm. calory for each kilogram of body weight transported a distance of 1 meter. This factor remains practically constant up to a speed of walking exceeding 80 meters
Gaseous Exchange and Physiological Requirements for Level and Grade Walking.. JAMA. 1922;79(19):1633. doi:10.1001/jama.1922.02640190071040