This paper is based on a statistical study1 of all cases with a diagnosis of disease of the biliary tract that have been in the surgical service of the Johns Hopkins Hospital between 1889 and 1924.
This consideration will not include the cases with malignancy of the biliary tract, and those with a clinical diagnosis of disease which was not confirmed by an operation. The cases are divided into three groups: (1) stones in the gallbladder or cystic duct, or both (460 cases); (2) stones in the common duct, regardless of the location of other stones (139 cases), and (3) acute or chronic cholecystitis without the presence of stones (136 cases).
The main interest centers in the ultimate condition of the patients following operation; but the more important points as regards (1) etiology, (2) symptomatology, (3) physical findings, (4) laboratory tests, (5) operation and reoperation, (6) bacteriology and pathology,
BLALOCK A. A CLINICAL STUDY OF BILIARY TRACT DISEASE. JAMA. 1924;83(26):2057–2060. doi:10.1001/jama.1924.02660260001001