Routine use of β-blockers to prevent cardiac complications related to noncardiac surgery began in the 1990s after the publication of 2 influential randomized clinical trials (RCTs).1,2 Responding to this evidence, a 2002 ACC/AHA guideline published a strong recommendation for starting β-blockers in high-risk patients undergoing vascular surgery and stated that this was also reasonable in moderate- to high-risk patients undergoing major noncardiac surgery.
Stern T, Cifu AS. Perioperative β-Blocker Therapy. JAMA. 2015;313(24):2486-2487. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.3086