Blood transfusion in pernicious anemia produces better and more permanent results than any other therapeutic measure. Although transfusion has been used in this disease for many years, the early results were not satisfactory. The causes of these poor results were: (1) failure to cross agglutinate before each transfusion; (2) the use of improper methods of transfusion; (3) the injection of too large amounts of blood, and (4) too long an interval between transfusions. Many have said that transfusion did little good; others that it seemed to retard progress, and a few that it definitely shortened the life of the patient, all of which has served to bring discredit on this useful therapeutic measure.
TYPING AND CROSS AGGLUTINATION
The institution of typing by Shattuck, in 1899, gave added incentive to the use of transfusion by increasing its safety. However, the terms "universal donor" and "universal recipient" came into use. The belief
JONES HW. BLOOD TRANSFUSION IN PERNICIOUS ANEMIA. JAMA. 1926;86(22):1673–1675. doi:10.1001/jama.1926.02670480003002